This research topic focuses on exploring the intricate interactions between peripheral immune cells and their mediators with the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) across multiple developmental stages: fetal, post-natal, adolescence, and adult stages. The main objective is to investigate the role of these neuro-immune interactions in both physiological and pathological conditions. By studying the influence of peripheral immune cells on neural development, maturation, and function, as well as their involvement in various neurological disorders, this research aims to unravel the complexities of the neuro-immune crosstalk and provide insights into potential therapeutic interventions targeting the immune system to promote neural health.Throughout fetal development, the impact of maternal immune cells and their mediators on shaping the developing brain will be explored. In the post-natal stage, the focus shifts to understanding how peripheral immune cells, including microglia and astrocytes, interact with the CNS and contribute to synaptic pruning, myelination, and neural circuit refinement. During adolescence, the research aims to uncover how peripheral immune cells and their mediators modulate brain maturation, cognitive function, and emotional regulation. Finally, in the adult stage, the maintenance of neuro-immune interactions and their role in CNS and PNS homeostasis will be investigated, along with the implications of neuroinflammation, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, this research topic aims to deepen our understanding of the complex interplay between peripheral immune cells and the CNS and PNS across different developmental stages and their significance in physiological and pathological conditions.